ISSN 2409-7616

Kargapolova E.V., Glinko O.S., Demidova A.A., Aksyutina I.V.


UDC 37.025


Kargapolova E.V.1 (Moscow, Russian Federation) –; Glinko O.S.1 (Moscow, Russian Federation) –; Demidova A.A.1 (Moscow, Russian Federation) –; Aksyutina I.V.2 (Moscow, Russian Federation) –

1Plekhanov Russian University of Economics

2MIREA — Russian Technological University

Abstract. In recent years, Russia has been strengthening its state ideology, which is focused on preserving spiritual values and traditions. Russians’ ideas about the spiritual ideal are an indicator of social changes in the country. Based on the results of an empirical study, it is shown that every third respondent – a resident of Moscow and the Moscow region – considers parents, family members and close people – teachers, friends, mentors, etc. to be a spiritual ideal. Every fourth understands the spiritual ideal through the prism of religious categories, divine presence, the life of religious ascetics, etc. Thus, more than half of the respondents are inclined to a traditional understanding of the spiritual ideal based on the values of family, parenthood, close social ties, and religiosity. Although there is also a certain degree of nihilism in the responses of the respondents, reflecting the absence of significant figures and characters worthy of identification with the spiritual ideal. Young people are more influenced by Western culture than adults and the elderly, which is reflected in their ideas about the spiritual ideal – there is a tendency to individualism, they more often than representatives of other age socio-demographic groups noted that they do not have a spiritual ideal. In adults, the understanding of the spiritual ideal is most often correlated with the values of family and close environment. Older people are more likely than young people and adults to rely on religious values in understanding the spiritual ideal. The results of the study can be used to specify measures for the formation of spiritual and moral values, taking into account the age characteristics of the respondents.

Keywords: spiritual ideal, intergenerational analysis, residents of Russia, Western culture, religious culture.


  1. Biryukova E.A. On the meaning of the concept of “culture”. Current problems of the humanities and natural sciences, 2016, no. 12-4, pp. 131-134. (In Russian). URL:
  2. Vyatkin B.A. Khotinets V.Yu., Kozhevnikova O.V. Intergenerational transmission of values in the modern multicultural world. Education and Science, 2022, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 135-162. (In Russian). DOI: 10.17853/1994-5639-2022-1-135-162
  3. Gorelov A.A. The role of self-creativity in the formation of individuality in Antiquity: spiritual exercises “learning to communicate with the Other” and “learning to die”. Znanie. Understand. Umenie, 2020, no. 2, pp. 68-83. (In Russian). DOI: 10.17805/zpu.2020.2.6
  4. Gusakova V.O. The concepts of “ideal” and “life path” as concepts of spiritual and moral education of schoolchildren at the present stage. Bulletin of the Orthodox St. Tikhon’s University for the Humanities. Series 4: Pedagogy. Psychology, 2022, no. 65, pp. 49-62. (In Russian). DOI: 10.15382/sturIV202265.49-62
  5. Evseev V.O. Human resources in the system of socio-economic equations. Monograph. Moscow, Sotsium Publ., 2009. 238 p. (In Russian). URL:
  6. Kovaleva G.P. The category of “spirituality” in the philosophy of N. A. Berdyaev.  Bulletin of the Kemerovo State University of Culture and Arts, 2013, no. 22, pp. 178-189. (In Russian). URL:
  7. Kochetkov I.G. Ideals in the spiritual and moral education of youth: stages and mechanisms of their development. Nizhny Novgorod education, 2011, no. 4, pp. 44-51. (In Russian). URL:
  8. Lang P.P. Prospects for individual freedom in a risk society. Kant, 2022, no. 4, pp. 141-145. (In Russian). DOI: 10.24923/2222-243X.2022-45.23
  9. Lisenkova A.A. Features of the formation of Russian cultural identity. Values and meanings, 2018, no. 2, pp. 55-68. (In Russian). URL:
  10. Ma Fengshu Russian-Chinese relations in the context of comparative analysis of cultures. Bulletin of RUDN University. Series: Political science, 2012, no. 2, pp. 5-28. (In Russian). URL:
  11. Meshcheryakova V.G. Modern youth and culture. System of values of modern society, 2015, no. 41, pp. 155-159. (In Russian). URL:
  12. Nikolskaya Yu.N. The role of the ideal in the formation of moral values in youth subcultures of modern Russia. Philosophy and Society, 2021, no. 3, pp. 106-114. (In Russian). URL:
  13. Pronina T.S. Religion as a source of cultural identity in modern Russia // Uchen. zap. Kazan. un-ta. Ser. Humanitarian. Sciences, 2015, vol. 157, no. 1, pp. 130-139. (In Russian). URL:
  14. Reshetova Yu.V. Spiritual and moral ideals of adolescents. Student science and the XXI century, 2018, no. 2-2, pp. 347-349. (In Russian). URL:
  15. Sitarov V.A. Determination of the sign of striving for an ideal in spiritual and moral education. Psychology and pedagogy of service activities, 2021, no. 1, pp. 78-83. (In Russian). DOI: 10.24412/2658-638X-2021-1-78-83
  16. Smaznova O.F. “Idols and ideals”: the philosophy of V. S. Solovyov in the context of discussions about the social ideal. Solovyov studies, 2008, no. 2, pp. 165-175. URL:
  17. Strizhitskaya O.Yu., Petrash M.D. Non-family intergenerational relations: problems and prospects. Bulletin of St. Petersburg University. Psychology, 2019, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 243–253. (In Russian). DOI:10.21638/spbu16.2019.302
  18. Talanova K.S. Model of moral crisis according to E. Durkheim. Bulletin of Moscow University, 2014, no. 1, pp. 238-255. (In Russian). URL:
  19. Fedulov B.A., Zuev V.M., Smirnov A.A. et al. Features of educating Russian youth on the socio-cultural ideal of personality. World of science, culture, education, 2019, no. 5 (78), pp. 331-332. (In Russian). DOI: 10.24411/1991-5497-2019-00129
  20. Khlyzova I.V. Education of the value aspect of youth based on the study of educational ideals of the 19th-20th centuries. World of Education – Education in the World, 2021, no. 4 (84), pp. 245-253. (In Russian). DOI: 10.51944/2073-8536_2021_4_245
  21. Chernobrov A.A. Religious culture and religious discourse. Siberian Pedagogical Journal, 2008, no. 1, pp. 172-181. (In Russian). URL:
  22. Shapovalov I.A., Zhaldybin Ya.A., Starodubtsev V.P. Russia and the challenge of the 21st century. Military Thought, 2009, no. 5, pp. 13-17. (In Russian). URL:

For citation: Kargapolova E.V., Glinko O.S., Demidova A.A., Aksyutina I.V.Spiritual ideal in the views of residents of Russia (using the example of residents of Moscow and the Moscow region). CITISE, 2024, no. 1, pp. 608-619. DOI: