ISSN 2409-7616

Hizbullina R.Z., Gilmanova G.R., Adelmurzina I.F., Aymanova E.E., Magasumov T.M.



UDC 37.012

Hizbullina R.Z.1 (Ufa, Russian Federation) – E-mail:, Gilmanova G.R.2 (Ufa, Russian Federation) – E-mail:, Adelmurzina I.F.1 (Ufa, Russian Federation) – E-mail:, Aymanova E.E.1 (Ufa, Russian Federation) – E-mail:, Magasumov T.M.1 (Ufa, Russian Federation) – E-mail:

1Bashkir State University

2BSPU named after M. Akmulla

Abstract. Pedagogy is the oldest science developing to this day. Every year there are new approaches to teaching a variety of disciplines: from humanitarian to technical. The natural sciences taught in general education institutions are the objects of a huge set of methodological approaches to study. So, studying geography at school, verbal, visual, and practical methods of implementing educational and cognitive activities are organized. However, the most productive and relevant today are practical exercises. It is especially important to apply such methods of teaching geography, which involve the implementation of independent work of students. Studying the subject in sections, schoolchildren should not only memorize and reproduce information, they should learn to think, The article describes the cause-and-effect relationships between the studied sections of geography in high school with the aim of forming independent study and performing practical work. The relationship between endogenous and exogenous processes of relief formation is considered, a methodology for drawing up a lesson plan for this section is proposed. The dependence of climatic conditions on the geographical location of the territory: latitude of the area, the angle of incidence of sunlight, the magnitude of solar radiation is presented. A number of relationships have been established between: inland waters and climate, relief and rocks; soils, vegetation and relief, rocks, climate and inland waters; fauna, climatic conditions and vegetation. Special attention is paid to the relationship between nature and man.

Keywords: teaching methodology, school geography, cause-and-effect relationships in geography.


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For citation:

Hizbullina R.Z., Gilmanova G.R., Adelmurzina I.F., Aymanova E.E., Magasumov T.M. Formation of training techniques for performance of independent works (on the example of studying cause-effective relations in the course of geography of Russia). CITISE, 2021, no. 4, pp.287-297. DOI: