ISSN 2409-7616

Galeeva E.M., Hizbullina R.Z., Adelmurzina I.F.


UDC 37.033


Galeeva E.M.1 (Ufa, Russian Federation) –; Hizbullina R.Z.1 (Ufa, Russian Federation) –; Adelmurzina I.F.1 (Ufa, Russian Federation) –

1Ufa University of Science and Technology

Abstract. The content of the article is based on the understanding that nature is a regular and holistic system, where phenomena and processes are inextricably linked with each other. It reveals examples and ways of studying the peculiarities of natural-territorial complexes of different ranks. Emphasis is placed on familiarization with the doctrine of landscape symmetry and especially deviations from it (i.e. asymmetry). The history of the origin of these concepts is traced and recommendations for their study are given, with reference to authors dealing with this problem. Geographical variants of landscape asymmetry of different order are given on the example of landscapes of the territory of the Republic of Bashkortostan. It is noted that the mountain system of the Southern Urals belongs to the class of complete morphological asymmetry with the circulation genetic type. The article characterizes in detail the landscape mesoasymmetry of the third order within Western Bashkortostan on the example of landscape structure of Bugulminsko-Belebeyevskaya upland, and also emphasizes that mesoasymmetry is characteristic not only for uplands, but also for interfluves and river valleys. Geographical variants of landscape asymmetry of the fourth order are represented by gullies, gulleys, hills or low mountains. It is this order of landscape asymmetry that is available for direct observation, mapping and profiling in the course of training practices. An example of local asymmetry is given for Bulak-Buy Mountain of Meleuzovsky district of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The proposed approach to the study of natural complexes will allow students to form a new understanding of nature and a new perspective on the subject of modern «natural» geography.

Keywords: landscape, landscape asymmetry, Bugulminsko-Belebeyevskaya uplands.


  1. Bigildina E.R., Bakieva E.V., Vildanov I.R. et al. Modern view of the landscapes of the barrier foothills of the Southern Urals based on the works of F.M. Maksyutov. Astrakhan Vestnik of Environmental Education, 2022, no. 3(69), pp. 63-71. (In Russian). DOI: 10.36698/2304-5957-2022-3-63-71
  2. Bigildina E.R., Zaripova L.A., Valeeva A.I. et al. Impact of climate aridity on the choice of wheat varieties for the territory of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Astrakhan Vestnik of Environmental Education, 2021, no. 1 (61), pp. 97-103. (In Russian). DOI: 10.36698/2304-5957-2021-20-1-97-103
  3. Vildanov I.R., Yaparov I.M. On the possibility of zoning the territory of the Bashkir Pre-Urals by the genesis of associated landscape complexes. Ufa, Bashkir State University Publ., 2016. pp. 74-75. (In Russian).
  4. Vildanov I.R., Yaparov I.M. Regionalization of the Bashkir Pre-Urals by the genesis of associated landscape complexes. Bulletin of the Transbaikal State University, 2019, vol. 25, no.  6. pp. 6-13. (In Russian). DOI: 10.21209/2227-9245-2019-25-6-6-13
  5. Galeeva E.M. Asymmetry of landscapes: Study guide. Ufa, BSPU Publ.,  2002. 108 p. (In Russian).
  6. Zaripova L.A., Mozzherin V.D., Nazmeeva I.V. et al. Evaluation of the tourist-recreational potential of the Bugulminsko-Belebeyevskaya upland. Astrakhan Vestnik of Environmental Education, 2023, no. 3(75), pp. 96-104. (In Russian). DOI: 10.36698/2304-5957-2023-3-96-104
  7. Kochurov B.I., Shakirov A.V., Turikeshev G.T.G. et al. On the results of the study of river network development on the territory of the Bugulminsko-Belebeyevskaya upland. Problems of Regional Ecology, no. 6, pp. 64-72. (In Russian). URL:
  8. Maksyutov F.A. Barrier landscapes of the USSR. Saratov, Saratov State University Publ., 1981. 138 p. (In Russian).
  9. Milkov F.N. Modern physical geography: state, regularities, problems. Voronezh, Voronezh University Publ., 1981. 398 p. (In Russian).
  10. Mingazetdinova R.F., Hizbullina R.Z., Kalimullina G.S. et al. Developmental value of interdisciplinary links for the formation of complex natural science concepts in modern schoolchildren. CITISE, 2019, no. 5 (22), pp. 58-69. (In Russian). DOI: 10.15350/24097616.2019.5.05
  11. Nigmatullin A.F. Yaparov I.M. Botanical and geographical zoning. Atlas of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Ufa, Kitap Publ., 2005. 128 p. (In Russian).
  12. Solntsev V.N. System organization of landscapes. Moscow, Mysl Publ., 1981. 239 p. (In Russian).
  13. Suleimanov A.R., Nazirova F.I., Garipov T.T. et al. Influence of water and wind erosion on the buffer properties of soils of steppe areas of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Russian Agricultural Science, 2021, no. 5, pp. 41-45. (In Russian). DOI: 10.31857/S2500262721050082
  14. Shakirov A.V. Physico-geographical zoning of the Urals. Problems of regional ecology, 2012, no. 3, pp. 121-125. (In Russian). URL:
  15. Yaparov I.M., Usmanova A.R., Vildanov I.R. et al. The current state of the South Ural landscapes of the barrier foothills. Astrakhan Vestnik of Environmental Education, 2021, no.  3(63), pp. 87-91. (In Russian). DOI: 10.36698/2304-5957-2021-3-87-91

For citation: Galeeva E.M., Hizbullina R.Z., Adelmurzina I.F. Study of regional manifestations of landscape asymmetry with students of geographical areas of training(on the example of the Republic of Bashkortostan). CITISE, 2024, no. 1, pp. 577-587. DOI: