EVOLUTIONARY DEVELOPMENT OF MODELS ECOTOURISM (ON THE EXAMPLE OF MANAGEMENT ASPECTS TOURIST FLOWS)
Astanin D.M.1 (Vologda, Moscow, Russian Federation) – E-mail: email@example.com
1Vologda State University, Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy
Abstract. At the moment, ecotourism is widespread all over the world. For more than over the century-long history of ecotourism development in the national parks of North America, the American model of ecotourism development was developed (ecotourism is carried out within protected areas in the spaces of a little-modified natural landscape). The European model of ecotourism has emerged and is developing on the territory of Western Europe, based (unlike the American one) on the cultural landscape. As a result of natural and cultural features, the existing models of ecotourism have been transformed, new types of ecotourism have appeared. The development of ecotourism territories is characterized by a simple infrastructure, compared to traditional tourism, the desire for harmony with the surrounding nature and local traditions. The study of models and types of ecotourism allows us to identify the following features urban development of the territory and characteristic elements of the tourist infrastructure. The combination of the functions of recreation and the protection of natural and cultural heritage in protected areas has led to the emergence of new elements of tourist infrastructure: ecological and educational information visit centers, ecological trails and routes. Ecological trails localize visitors on the route. Visit centers-inform visitors about the nature of the protected area. For the sustainable development of tourism in the protected area, constant monitoring of the state of the tourist industry is necessary infrastructure and natural ecosystems.
Keywords: ecotourism, American (North American, Australian) ecotourism model, Western European (German) ecotourism model, tourist flow, landscaping, protected areas, national park, cultural landscape, spatial development, ecological trail, public administration.
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