EVOLUTIONARY DEVELOPMENT OF MODELS ECOTOURISM (ON THE EXAMPLE OF MANAGEMENT ASPECTS TOURIST FLOWS)
Astanin D.M.1 (Vologda, Moscow, Russian Federation) – E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
1Vologda State University, Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy
Abstract. At the moment, ecotourism is widespread all over the world. For more than over the century-long history of ecotourism development in the national parks of North America, the American model of ecotourism development was developed (ecotourism is carried out within protected areas in the spaces of a little-modified natural landscape). The European model of ecotourism has emerged and is developing on the territory of Western Europe, based (unlike the American one) on the cultural landscape. As a result of natural and cultural features, the existing models of ecotourism have been transformed, new types of ecotourism have appeared. The development of ecotourism territories is characterized by a simple infrastructure, compared to traditional tourism, the desire for harmony with the surrounding nature and local traditions. The study of models and types of ecotourism allows us to identify the following features urban development of the territory and characteristic elements of the tourist infrastructure. The combination of the functions of recreation and the protection of natural and cultural heritage in protected areas has led to the emergence of new elements of tourist infrastructure: ecological and educational information visit centers, ecological trails and routes. Ecological trails localize visitors on the route. Visit centers-inform visitors about the nature of the protected area. For the sustainable development of tourism in the protected area, constant monitoring of the state of the tourist industry is necessary infrastructure and natural ecosystems.
Keywords: ecotourism, American (North American, Australian) ecotourism model, Western European (German) ecotourism model, tourist flow, landscaping, protected areas, national park, cultural landscape, spatial development, ecological trail, public administration.
- Astanin D.M. Territorial planning of the system of eco-tourist educational institutions. Architecton: Izvestiya vuzov, 2016, no. 3 (55), pp. 3-3. (In Russian). URL: https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=27323148
- Astanin D.M. Ecological and cultural aspects of the evolutionary development of ecological tourism models CITISE, 2019, no. (2), pp. 1-1. (In Russian). URL: https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=38505971
- Mamedov N.M. Ecology and the formation of a new culture. Bulletin of the Moscow Pedagogical University. Series: Philosophical Sciences, 2014, no. 3 (11), pp. 105-116. (In Russian). URL: https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=22251740
- Myrzagalieva Zh. Zh. Ecological corridors as elements of the ecological framework of the territory. Moscow, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia Publ., 2015. pp. 204-207. (In Russian). URL: https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=26518607
- Ovchinnikova N.V., Artyomov O.Yu. A look at management from the standpoint of a systems approach: history and current state. Bulletin of the Russian State Humanitarian University. Series: Economics. Control. Right, 2013, no. 6 (107), pp. 9-21. (In Russian). URL: https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=19022067
- Tretyakova T.N., Bai T.V. Databases as the basis of tourist activity in the region. Chelyabinsk, South Ural State University Publ., 2015, pp. 1601-1610. (In Russian). URL: https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=25764055
- Ushakova E.O., Vdovin S.A. Determination of the tourist attractiveness of the region by the size of the potential of tourism development resources. Modern problems of science and education, 2014, no. 1, pp. 297-297. (In Russian). URL: https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=21451276
- Chizhova V.P. Development of ecotourism in protected natural areas (ecological and geographical aspect). Russian Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2013, no. 3, pp. 7-12. (In Russian). URL: https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=21080662
- Yakovenko I.M., Voronina A.B. Specially Protected Natural Areas as an Object of Recreational Activity. Scientific Notes of the V.I. Vernadsky. Geography. Geology, 2015, vol. 1, (67), no. 1. pp. 41-60. (In Russian). URL: https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=25655968
- Yamashkin A.A., Yamashkin S.A., Zarubin O.A. Landscape and ecological zoning and design of the ecological frame. Saransk, National Research Mordovian State University. N.P. Ogareva Publ., 2017. pp. 214-222. (In Russian). URL: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=30587632
- Buckley R. Evaluating the net effects of ecotourism on the environment: a framework, first assessment and future research. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2009, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 643–672. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09669580902999188
- Butche J. Ecotourism, NGOs and development: A critical analysis. London, Routledge Publ., 2007. 208 p. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203962077
- Farrell B.H., Runyan D. Ecology and tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 1991. vol. 18, issue 1, pp. 26-40.
- Fennell D. Ecotourism Third Edition. London, Routledge Publ., 2007. 302 p. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203939581
- Fennell D.A., Eagles P.F. Ecotourism in Costa Rica: a conceptual framework. Journal of park and recreation administration, 1990, vol. 8(1), pp. 23-34.
- Menkhaus S., Lober D.J. International ecotourism and the valuation of tropical rainforest in Costa Rica. Journal of environmental management, 1996, vol. 47, issue 1, pp. 1-10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/jema.1996.0031
- Timothy D., Iverson T. Tourism and Islam: consideration of culture and duty. In Tourism, Religion and Spiritual Journeys. London, Routledge Publ., 2006, pp. 186-205.
- Whitelaw P.A., King B., Tolkach D. Protected areas, conservation and tourism financing the sustainable dream. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2014, vol. 22, pp. 584-603. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2013.873445
- Wu W., Zhang X., Yang Z., Qin W., Wang F., Wang C. Ecotourism Suitability and Zoning from the Tourist Perspective: a Nature Reserve Case Study. Polish Journal of Enviromental Studies, 2015, vol. 24, pp. 2683-2697. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15244/pjoes/59422
Astanin D.M. Evolutionary development of models ecotourism (on the example of management aspects tourist flows). CITISE, 2021, no. 4, pp.65-76. DOI: http://doi.org/10.15350/2409-7616.2021.4.07