ISSN 2409-7616

Bigildina E.R., Vildanov I.R., Gayazova G.A., Kachagin A.A., Zainullina E.R.



UDC 376.3

Bigildina E.R.1 (Ufa, Russian Federation) – E-mail:, Vildanov I.R.1 (Ufa, Russian Federation) – E-mail:, Gayazova G.A.1 (Ufa, Russian Federation) – E-mail:, Kachagin A.A.2 (Ulyanovsk, Russian Federation) – E-mail:, Zainullina E.R.1 (Ufa, Russian Federation) – E-mail:

1Bashkir State University

2Ulyanovsk State University

Abstract. According to the UN, this is about 40 million people with visual impairment, and in Russia their number is approaching 300 thousand. Such people are able to explore the world only with the help of tactile, auditory and olfactory abilities. But there are not many means to know the world with the help of these sensations, they all rely on visual methods. Therefore, it is very important that such a science as tactile cartography develops and tactile cartographic materials are created. After all, blind and visually impaired people, as well as people without visual impairments, it is very important to learn to navigate in the surrounding space, to know its features. The article discusses the main provisions of medical geography and cartography with further possibilities of using tactile cartography to conduct research on the problems of modern society – childhood blindness. The paper considers the process of creating a tactile historical map. The analysis of the tactile properties of the card, its disadvantages and advantages of cards from the point of view of medical requirements is given. The article provides an overview of statistical data and suggests their visual use in practice. The authors compiled a school historical tactile map. The paper provides an overview of the mapping process.

Keywords: medical geography, population health, mapping, Bashkortostan, tactile map.


  1. Aguilera Delgado T.P. Development of tactile cartography abroad. Geodesy and cartographyб 2015, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 28-30. (In Russian). URL:
  2. Andriukhina Yu.N., Poshivailo Ya.G., Ananyev V.A. On the issue of developing a standard methodology for creating tactile maps. Geodesy and cartography, 2018, vol. 79, no. 11. pp. 25-33. (In Russian). URL:
  3. Bakieva E.V., Bigildina E.R., Vildanov I.R. Principles of drawing up and possibilities of using tactile maps in teaching geography. CITISE, 2021, no. 1, pp. 195-205. (In Russian). DOI:
  4. World Health Organization. Available at:  (Accessed 14 December 2021)
  5. Vygotsky L.S. Fundamentals of defectology. St. Petersburg,  Lan Puubl., 2013.  654 p. (In Russian).
  6. GOST R 56832-2015. Braille font. Requirements and dimensions. Moscow, 2016.  7 p. Available at:  (Accessed 14 December 2021)
  7. Druzhinina L.A. Classes on the development of orientation in space for preschoolers with visual impairments. Chelyabinsk, ALIM Publ., 2008.  206 p. (In Russian).
  8. Ermakov V.P. Graphic means of visualization for the visually impaired. Moscow, VOS, 2008. 20 p. (In Russian).
  9. Ermakov V.P., Yakunin G.A. Fundamentals of typhlopedagogy: development, education and upbringing of children with visual impairments. Moscow, Vlados Publ., 2000.  240 p. (In Russian).
  10. Zorichev D.I. Features of teaching geography to blind children. Moscow, Uchpedgiz Publ., 1950. (In Russian).
  11. Zorichev D.I. Working with a globe and a map in the school of the blind. Special school. Publ., 1960, issue 5. 192 p. (In Russian).
  12. Igumnov A.Yu. Investigation of the peculiarities of perception of tactile conventional signs by schoolchildren with visual function restriction. Novosibirsk, NSU Publ., 2017, pp. 89-90. (In Russian).
  13. How a 3D printer works: the principle of three-dimensional printing. Available at:  (Accessed 14 December 2021)
  14. Karpik A.P. Electronic geospatial – the essence and conceptual foundations. Geodesy and cartography, 2009, no. 5, pp. 41-44. (In Russian). URL:
  15. Koening P. Manual for the production of tactile graphics. St. Petersburg, Russian State Library for the Blind Publ., 2018. 69 p. (In Russian).
  16. Lesnevsky Yu.Yu., Odinokova N.A. Relevance and ways of creating tactile books for blind and visually impaired children in the Siberian region. Novgorod, Perspective Publ., 2018. 25 p. (In Russian). URL:
  17. Khizbullina R.Z., Bigildina E.R., Migranova D.V., Adelmurzina I.F., Zaripova L.A. Cartographer’s profession: history, features, relevance. CITISE, 2019, no. 5(22), pp. 70-80. (In Russian). DOI:

For citation:

Bigildina E.R., Vildanov I.R., Gayazova G.A., Kachagin A.A., Zainullina E.R. Medico-geographical mapping: analysis and research of tactile maps in the conditions of school education. CITISE, 2022, no. 1, pp.132-147. DOI: