ISSN 2409-7616

Adelmurzina I.F., Badretdinov R.F., Galimov A.A., Inozemtseva D.N., Khizbullina R.Z.



UDC 372.891

Adelmurzina I.F.1 (Ufa, Russian Federation) – E-mail:, Badretdinov R.F.1 (Ufa, Russian Federation) – E-mail:, Galimov A.A.1 (Ufa, Russian Federation) – E-mail:, Inozemtseva D.N.1 (Ufa, Russian Federation) – E-mail:, Khizbullina R.Z.1 (Ufa, Russian Federation) – E-mail:

1Bashkir State University

Abstract. The identification of ways, means, pedagogical conditions for the formation of knowledge about the natural complex in the system of education and upbringing is an urgent problem, is of great practical importance. Progressive pedagogical thought has always highly appreciated the role of nature in the formation of personality, confirming the truth of the position that the entire spiritual life of a person is inextricably linked with nature. The main purpose of the authors’ research is to study the formation of theoretical knowledge about natural complexes among students of secondary educational schools within the framework of the study of the section of physical geography. The authors provide a systematization of the taught theoretical information according to the degree of complexity of the assimilation of the material. Analyzing school physical and geographical material, the authors identified and described the most effective methods of teaching it. For example, one of the most effective methods for studying some topics of school geography, the authors recommend using the method of direct and indirect associations, such as considering real situations, processes and phenomena in the environment. Such methods make it possible to better understand and preserve the acquired theoretical and practical knowledge and skills in the long-term memory of schoolchildren, which in turn will help them to reproduce the necessary information over a long period of time. The study of sections of physical geography within the school curriculum is closely related to environmental education. Therefore, while improving the methods of teaching geography, it is important to focus on achieving an understanding by the majority of students of the important relationships between man and the environment: their interaction and interdependence.

Keywords: school geography, the study of natural complexes, methods of teaching geography.


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For citation:

Adelmurzina I.F., Badretdinov R.F., Galimov A.A., Inozemtseva D.N., Khizbullina R.Z. The importance of out-of-class work in the formation of ecological culture. CITISE, 2022, no. 1, pp.67-77. DOI: